TENDERS FLOATED BY HINDUSTAN COPPER LIMITED
Live Tenders   Archive Tenders
1.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Singhbhum  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Ac Drive System for Long Travel Motion Of Refinery EOT Crane.
2.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Singhbhum  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of H.T.Power Factor Correction Capacitor02.01.14.
3.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 29,957.00
Procurement of Stationery items - Register, Pad.
4.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Wednesday, April 23, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of tata vehicle spares.
5.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 209,960.00
Procurement of Submersible Pumps for Fresh Water Generation, Water Supply Section Kcc.
6.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 433,249.00
Procurement of m.s. pipe.
7.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost INR 1,800,000.00
Supply & retroffiting of vacuum circuit breaker nos 33.3 kv, 630a, complete with panel and protection system having provision of mechanical and electrical inter locking.
8.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of VCB panel 3.3KV,630A.
9.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Fully Automatic Star/Delta Starter.
10.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 533,400.00
Repair of Quarters at Kolihan Nagar Township during 2014-15 Annual rate contract.
11.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 22,599.00
Supply of Stationery Items.
12.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Multi Location  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Wooden Pallet to Taloja Copper Project.
13.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 57,387.00
Procurement of Civil Materials River Sand/Sand For Cement, Commercial Ply Wood Sheet Of N Confirming, 25 M.M Thick Locally Best Available Stone Slab For Manhole Cover, 4 Mm Glass Sheet.
14.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Taloja  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost INR 11,500,000.00
Supply of Wooden palkey key personmr.u m patil,sr.m(mat) tel.no. 022-27402678.
15.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Tooth Point.
16.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Rubber Chute Liners Crushing Plant.
17.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Track Shoe Assembly For Beml Bd355 Dozers.
18.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Rear Vision System With 7" LCD Monitor & Night Vision Camera.
19.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of PVC Aluminium Cable, Double Armored (Round), 3.3 Kv,3 C X 185 Sq mm.(Make-Universal, CCI, Ravin, Crystal, Rpg, "Unicab" Uniflex/Apar Cables.
20.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 3,642,007.00
Repair of Road in Kolihan Nagar Mines Area during 2014-15.
21.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Taloja  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 11,500,000.00
Supply of Wooden Pallet.
22.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 1,412,800.00
Supply of Tooth Point.
23.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 5,537,010.00
Rubber Chute Liners Crushing Plant.
24.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 7,586,270.00
Repair Of Road At Township During 2014 15.
25.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 687,867.00
Procurement of valves - Gate & non return valve, Gun Metal Wheel Valve, Hand Wheel Operated Gate Valve, Valve Cast Steel Non Return, Sluice Valve, Valve Sluice/Gate Cast Iron Flanged Ends Confirming To Is- No-780/1980 Rev.Iii, Size 12, Valve Cast Steel Non Return Flanged Ends.
26.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 4,036,200.00
Supply of track shoe assembly for dozer.
27.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 625,000.00
Supply of Rear Vision System with 7" LCD Monitor & Night Vision Camera.
28.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 7,586,270.00
Repair of Road at Khetri Nagar Township During 2014-15.
29.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 1,821,501.00
Dismantling, Fabrication & Erection Jobs In KCM Surface, ARW, Civil And KCC Mines Surface & Underground.
30.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 456,108.00
Supply of Plate, Disc, Spares for Dumper.
31.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 2,161,450.00
Repair of Road in Kolihan Nagar Township During 2014-15.
32.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 799,800.00
Supply of Spares for Dozer - Frame Assembly 195-71-00056, Make Beml/Komatsu, Frame Assembly 195-71-00066, Make Beml/Komatsu.
33.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 457,560.00
Supply of Spares for Dumper - Cylinder Head Gp, Fan Belt.
34.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost INR 21,150.00
Supply of Asbestos Graphite Gland Packing 14mm Sq. Champion/Spitmaan Style 3116.
35.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Grinding media rods.
36.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 6,640.00
Supply of silicon diode 150 amp with normal polarity having piv 800/1250 v with lead and flate base plate of dia 40 mm.
37.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Multi Location  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Hiring of 35 seater deluxe bus.
38.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Cable Trolley for Crane.
39.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Grinding Media Rods.
40.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Monday, April 21, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of mantle top, feed plate, disc/top mantle, feed plate.
41.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Monday, April 21, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of industrial safety rubber knee boots with steel toe cap.
42.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Amonia paper & Liquid.
43.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Annual contract for removal of spillage below ball mills and surrounding areas of main process and secondary crushing units and transportation of the same to south lean ore dump, primary crusher hopper & C.O.S.
44.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Multi Location  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Operation of Bus services between MCP.
45.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Gland packing - asbestos graphite gland packing 14mm sq. champion/spitmaan style 3116.
46.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Wednesday, April 30, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Requirement of M S flange.
47.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Repair of Road in Kolihan Nagar Mines Area during 2014-15.
48.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of lt 440volt ac power distribution board.
49.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of lt 440volt ac power distribution board.
50.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 50,800.00
Supply of Ammonia Paper Rolls Measuring 1.02 X 50 Mtrs Elixer Brand Or Accurate Brand, Liquid Ammonia Bottels Sg. 88 Elixer Brand.
51.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 285,200.00
Procurement of commercial Grade Oxalic Acid and Nitric Acid.
52.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 6,640.00
Procurement of Silicon Diode.
53.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 23,800.00
Procurement of Cable Trolley for Crane.
54.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Raigad  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Common Salt,For Chemical Industry.
55.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Taloja  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 25,000.00
Supply of Quartz Sand.
56.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Raigad  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost INR 223,813.00
Supply of long and short launder lip key.
57.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 187,500.00
Procurement of Antistatic Hose Pipe.
58.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 190,950.00
Procurement of Air hose pipe.
59.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 83,745.00
Procurement of Transition cap and axle.
60.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 40,000.00
Procurement Of DGMS Approved Cordless LED Cap Lamp.
61.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 57,625.00
Supply of Stationery items.
62.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Antistatic Hose Pipe.
63.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Replacement of Major Assemblies (Mill Discharge Head).
64.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Stationery items Gem Clip Standard Size, Twin Thread Bll 95 To 100 Gms Grey In Colour, Double Punch Machine(Small Size).
65.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Air Hose Pipe for Operation Eimco-824 Loader.
66.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Transition Cap & Axle for ARW.
67.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Raigad  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Maintenance & Development of Landscaping & Horticulture Works at TCP.
68.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Expression of Interest for Selection of Buyer to Buy De-Copperised Solution Containing Nickel Or Convert The Solution Containing Nickel Either Into Nickel Metal Or Nickel Compound.
69.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 423,310.00
Procurement of Pipe Fittings.
70.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Kolkata  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 15,500.00
Procurement of LCD Projector Lamp EPSON Make.
71.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 185,000.00
Procurement of cooler for 3500 cfm compressors.
72.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 87,136.00
Procurement of spares for rock breaker and crusher body /tool holder, thrust piece & tie rod.
73.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 170,520.00
Procurement of Bucket for LHD-912.
74.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 23,800.00
Procurement of Cable Trolley for Crane.
75.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 9,475.00
Supply of Gem Clip Standard Size, Twin Thread Bll 95 To 100 Gms Grey In Colour, Double Punch Machine(Small Size).
76.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost INR 12,950.00
Procurement of White metal lead base.
77.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 980,000.00
Annual rate contract for structural, repair & maintenance of aerial rope way.
78.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 500,000.00
Annual Maintenance Contract of Computer Systems and Peripherals and Operating Systems, Printers, UPSes and Local Area Network excluding Active Network Devices in various Departments and Offices of Copper Complex, and Kolihan Copper Mines, Kolihan Nagar.
79.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 184,500.00
Procurement Of Seal Kit For Rock Breaker.
80.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 710,400.00
Procurement of seal kit for rock breaker.
81.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 1,100,626.00
Supply of spares for ejc-417 revk vib - dampner, sleeve fpr vib-damper & 10x 24 w tube rim ass.
82.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 2,049,840.00
Supply 6000 Mandays Of Manpower In Twelve Months To Undertake The Jobs Of Cleaning Of Spillage And Silt At Various Locations As And When Required For Deployment At Various Locations In Underground Working Of Khetri Copper Mine For Twelve Months.
83.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Electrolytic Grade Copper Rolled Bus bar for Cells.
84.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Friday, April 25, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Super Enameled Copper Wire.
85.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of Hydraulic cylinder for Rock breaker.
86.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Malanjkhand  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Replacement of C.G.I. roof sheeting of Primary and Secondary crusher units at MCP.
87.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Ghatsila  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of ITW Make Steel Strap.
88.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Taloja  
Last Date Monday, April 28, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 20,000.00
Supply Of Lancing Pipe 1/4 N.B.
89.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost INR 95,100.00
Procurement of Spares for Skip & Loco.
90.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost INR 173,222.00
Procurement of Chain Pulley & Triffer.
91.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 300,000.00
Cleaning Of Sewer Line In Kolihan Nagar Township During 2014 15(ARC).
92.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 714,799.00
Providing & Fixing of RCC Poles Fencing in front of G.T. Plant upto Main Road
93.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetri  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 479,993.00
Repair & Replacement of Water Supply and Sanitary fittings during 2014 15 ARC.
94.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost INR 37,860.00
Procurement of valve for atlas 1030lhd.
95.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 13, 2014
Est. Cost INR 65,678.00
Procurement of Chain Pulley Block.
96.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, April 22, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 37,860.00
Procurement Of Valve For Atlas 1030lhd.
97.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 13, 2014
Est. Cost INR 111,580.00
Supply of Resistance Box For 160kw Slip Ring Crusher Motor As Per Details Attached.
98.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 479,993.00
Repair & Replacement of Water Supply & Sanitary Fittings at Khetri Nagar Township During 2014-15(ARC).
99.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Friday, May 02, 2014
Est. Cost INR 714,799.00
Providing & Fixing of RCC Poles Fencing In Front Of G.T. Plant Upto Main Road.
100.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Khetrinagar  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost INR 300,000.00
Cleaning of Sewer Line in Kolihan Nagar Township during 2014-15(ARC).
101.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Kolkata  
Last Date Wednesday, April 30, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Appointment of Internal Auditors for F.Y.2014-15 for Hindustan Copper Limited
102.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Cast iron sluice (gate) valve
103.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Wednesday, May 14, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Plow Bolt with Nut and Washer
104.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Electric furnace (chamber type)
105.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Wednesday, April 30, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Onionic bitumen based dust suppressant
106.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Friday, May 09, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of DBMC Bricks
107.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Tuesday, May 06, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Procurement of 1020 mm wide all nylon creass conveyor belt
108.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Balaghat  
Last Date Wednesday, May 07, 2014
Est. Cost N.A.
Supply of Grill frame type
109.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 13, 2014
Est. Cost Rs. 493,000.00
Enlargement Of The New Tyres & Re -Treading Of Old/Used Tyres.
110.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Est. Cost INR 79,000.00
Supply of Spares - Chisel Or Npk Rock Breaker for Npk Rock Breaker.
111.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Kolkata  
Last Date Tuesday, May 13, 2014
Est. Cost INR 493,000.00
Extra molding enlargement and retreading of tyre size 7.00 X 12.
112.
Company Name Hindustan Copper Limited
Location Jhunjhunu  
Last Date Tuesday, May 13, 2014
Est. Cost INR 92,646.00
Procurement of Control Valves.